TTFields harness physics to disrupt mitosis in cancer cells1-3

TTFields-induced disruption of mitosis

In preclinical models, TTFields have been shown to disrupt mitosis in cancer cells by exerting electric forces on their polar components (eg, microtubule spindle formation during mitosis), disrupting their normal localization (place in cell membrane) and function, ultimately leading to cell death.1-3

Explore each phase of mitosis to see the impact of TTFields

In Metaphase

Depiction of TTFields impairing microtubule assembly in cancer cells during metaphase Depiction of TTFields impairing microtubule assembly in cancer cells during metaphase
Microtubules

In metaphase:

TTFields impair microtubule assembly in cancer cells, leading to aberrant mitotic spindle formation.2,4

In Anaphase

Depiction of TTFields disrupting septin arrangement at anaphase Depiction of TTFields disrupting septin arrangement at anaphase
Microtubules

In anaphase:

TTFields disrupt the arrangement of septin at the anaphase cleavage furrow in cancer cells, inducing cytoplasmic membrane blebbing, mitotic failure, and asymmetric chromosome segregation.1,5

In Telophase

Depiction of polar macromolecules and organelles being pushed to the area of higher TTFields intensity during telophase in cancer cells Depiction of polar macromolecules and organelles being pushed to the area of higher TTFields intensity during telophase in cancer cells
Microtubules

In telophase:

Polar organelles and macromolecules in cancer cells are pushed to the area of higher TTFields intensity when cancer cells assume an hourglass shape during telophase and cytokinesis in a process known as dielectrophoresis.4,5

See the enhanced effects of TTFields when used with chemotherapy

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TTFields interefering with cell migration and metastasis

See how TTFields also interferes with cancer cell migration

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References: 1. Gera N, Yang A, Holtzman TS, Lee SX, Wong ET, Swanson KD. Tumor treating fields perturb the localization of septins and cause aberrant mitotic exit. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):1-20. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125269 2. Giladi M, Schneiderman RS, Voloshin T, et al. Mitotic spindle disruption by alternating electric fields leads to improper chromosome segregation and mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2015;5:1-16. doi:10.1038/srep18046 3. Voloshin T, Kaynan N, Davidi S, et al. Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) induce immunogenic cell death resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy when combined with anti-PD-1 therapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2020;69(7):1191-1204. doi:10.1007/s00262-020-02534-7 4. Gutin PH, Wong ET. Noninvasive application of alternating electric fields in glioblastoma: a fourth cancer treatment modality. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2012:126-131. doi:10.14694/EdBook_AM.2012.32.122 5. Mun EJ, Babiker HM, Weinberg U, Kirson ED, Von Hoff DD. Tumor-treating fields: a fourth modality in cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(2):266-275. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1117