Discover the clinical versatility of this innovative anticancer modality1,2

TTFields therapy arrays

Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) are electric fields that exert physical forces to disrupt cellular processes critical for cancer cell viability and tumor progression via a variety of mechanisms.1-5

  • Electric fields have different effects on the human body depending on their frequency, leading to diverse applications in healthcare such as microwave ablation, deep brain stimulation, and pacemakers1,6-8
  • Cancer cells contain polar cellular components that can be influenced by electric fields—introducing exciting possibilities for solid tumor treatment9
TTFields spare healthy cells because they have different properties (including division rate, morphology, and electrical properties) than cancer cells

What is the innovation that enables TTFields to selectively disrupt multiple cancer cell processes without significantly affecting healthy cells?

  • TTFields don't significantly affect healthy cells because they have different properties (including division rate, morphology, and electrical properties) than cancer cells1,4,5,10-12
    • Differences in electrical properties occur at the plasma membrane and within the intracellular and extracellular environments, and become more pronounced at higher stages of malignancy10-12
  • TTFields employ electric fields at a frequency range of 100 kHz to 500 kHz. Its relatively high frequency range and low intensity allow it to avoid depolarizing nerves or muscle or have significant heating effects, which allows it to enter cells more effectively1,13
Cancer cell being targeted by TTFields and Low frequency electric field applied to cancer cell

TTFields therapy's inherent properties make it clinically versatile:

  • It can be customized via frequencies based on cell type to target a diverse range of solid tumors9
  • It can be delivered noninvasively via a portable device14,15

References: 1. Karanam NK, Story MD. An overview of potential novel mechanisms of action underlying tumor treating fields-induced cancer cell death and their clinical implications. Int J Radiat Biol. 2021;97(8):1044-1054. doi:10.1080/09553002.2020.1837984 2. Voloshin T, Schneiderman RS, Volodin A, et al. Tumor treating fields (TTFields) hinder cancer cell motility through regulation of microtubule and actin dynamics. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(10):1-18. doi:10.3390/cancers12103016 3. Mun EJ, Babiker HM, Weinberg U, Kirson ED, Von Hoff DD. Tumor-treating fields: a fourth modality in cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(2):266-275. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1117 4. Cooper GM. The development and causes of cancer. In: The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates; 2000:chap 15. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9963/ 5. Baba AI, Câtoi C. Tumor cell morphology. In: Comparative Oncology. The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy; 2007:chap 3. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9553/ 6. Ablation for liver cancer. American Cancer Society. Updated April 1, 2019. Accessed June 21, 2022. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/liver-cancer/treating/tumor-ablation.html 7. Krauss JK, Lipsman N, Aziz T, et al. Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions. Nat Rev Neurol. 2021;17(2):75-87. doi:10.1038/s41582-020-00426-z 8. Mulpuru SK, Madhavan M, McLeod CJ, Cha Y-M, Friedman PA. Cardiac pacemakers: function, troubleshooting, and management. Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(2):189-210. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.061 9. Kirson ED, Dbalý V, Tovaryš F, et al. Alternating electric fields arrest cell proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(24):10152-10157. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702916104 10. Trainito CI, Sweeney DC, Čemažar J, et al. Characterization of sequentially-staged cancer cells using electrorotation. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):1-18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222289 11. Haemmerich D, Schutt DJ, Wright AW, Webster JG, Mahvi DM. Electrical conductivity measurement of excised human metastatic liver tumours before and after thermal ablation. Physiol Meas. 2009;30(5):459-466. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/30/5/003 12. Ahmad MA, (IEEE SM), Al Natour Z, Mustafa F, Rizvi TA. Electrical characterization of normal and cancer cells. IEEE Access. 2018;6:25979-25986. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2830883 13. Wenger C, Giladi M, Bomzon Z, Salvador R, Basser PJ, Miranda PC. Modeling Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) application in single cells during metaphase and telophase. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015;2015:6892-6895. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319977 14. Optune. Instructions for Use for Glioblastoma Mutiforme. Novocure; 2019. 15. NovoTTFTM-100L System. Instructions for Use for Unresectable Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Novocure; 2018. 16. Rominiyi O, Vanderlinden A, Clenton SJ, Bridgewater C, Al-Tamimi Y, Collis SJ. Tumour treating fields therapy for glioblastoma: current advances and future directions. Br J Cancer. 2021;124(4):697-709. doi:10.1038/s41416-020-01136-5