Discover the clinical versatility of this innovative anticancer modality1,2

TTFields therapy arrays

TTFields are electric fields that exert physical forces to kill cancer cells via a variety of mechanisms1-7:

  • Electric fields have different effects on the human body depending on their frequency, leading to diverse applications in healthcare such as microwave ablation, deep brain stimulation, and pacemakers1,8-10
  • Cancer cells contain polar cellular components that can be influenced by electric fields—introducing exciting possibilities for solid tumor treatment7
  • TTFields employ electric fields at a frequency range of 100 kHz to 500 kHz. Its relatively high frequency range and low intensity allow it to avoid depolarizing nerves or muscle or have significant heating effects1,11
  • The unique frequency range of TTFields allows the electric fields to be generated through the cancer cell membrane, while a lower frequency would not1,11
Cancer cell being targeted by TTFields and Low frequency electric field applied to cancer cell

Cell membranes prevent low-frequency electric fields from entering cell

TTFields 100 to 500 kHz frequency range enables the field to penetrate cell membranes

For illustrative purposes only

What is the innovation that enables TTFields to selectively disrupt multiple cancer cell processes while sparing healthy cells?

  • TTFields spare healthy cells because they have different properties (including division rate, morphology, and electrical properties) than cancer cells1,4,5,10,12,13
    • Differences in electrical properties occur at the plasma membrane and within the intracellular and extracellular environments, and become more pronounced at higher stages of malignancy12-14
TTFields spare healthy cells because they have different properties (including division rate, morphology, and electrical properties) than cancer cells

Cancer cell

Healthy cell

For illustrative purposes only

TTFields therapy's inherent properties make it clinically versatile:

  • It can be customized via frequencies based on cell type to target a diverse range of solid tumors7
  • It can be delivered noninvasively and locoregionally via a portable device3

References: 1. Karanam NK, Story MD. An overview of potential novel mechanisms of action underlying tumor treating fields-induced cancer cell death and their clinical implications. Int J Radiat Biol. 2021;97(8):1044-1054. doi:10.1080/09553002.2020.1837984 2. Voloshin T, Schneiderman RS, Volodin A, et al. Tumor treating fields (TTFields) hinder cancer cell motility through regulation of microtubule and actin dynamics. Cancers (Basel). 2020;12(10):1-18. doi:10.3390/cancers12103016 3. Mun EJ, Babiker HM, Weinberg U, Kirson ED, Von Hoff DD. Tumor-treating fields: a fourth modality in cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(2):266-275. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1117 4. Cooper GM. The development and causes of cancer. In: The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd ed. Sinauer Associates; 2000:chap 15. Accessed June 21, 2022. 5. Baba AI, Câtoi C. Tumor cell morphology. In: Comparative Oncology. The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy; 2007:chap 3. Accessed June 21, 2022. 6. Giladi M, Schneiderman RS, Voloshin T, et al. Mitotic spindle disruption by alternating electric fields leads to improper chromosome segregation and mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2015;5:1-16. doi:10.1038/srep18046 7. Kirson ED, Dbalý V, Tovaryš F, et al. Alternating electric fields arrest cell proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(24):10152-10157. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702916104 8. Ablation for liver cancer. American Cancer Society. Updated April 1, 2019. Accessed June 21, 2022. 9. Krauss JK, Lipsman N, Aziz T, et al. Technology of deep brain stimulation: current status and future directions. Nat Rev Neurol. 2021;17(2):75-87. doi:10.1038/s41582-020-00426-z 10. Mulpuru SK, Madhavan M, McLeod CJ, Cha Y-M, Friedman PA. Cardiac pacemakers: function, troubleshooting, and management. Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69(2):189-210. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.061 11. Wenger C, Giladi M, Bomzon Z, Salvador R, Basser PJ, Miranda PC. Modeling Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) application in single cells during metaphase and telophase. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015;2015:6892-6895. doi:10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319977 12. Trainito CI, Sweeney DC, Čemažar J, et al. Characterization of sequentially-staged cancer cells using electrorotation. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):1-18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222289 13. Haemmerich D, Schutt DJ, Wright AW, Webster JG, Mahvi DM. Electrical conductivity measurement of excised human metastatic liver tumours before and after thermal ablation. Physiol Meas. 2009;30(5):459-466. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/30/5/003 14. Ahmad MA, (IEEE SM), Al Natour Z, Mustafa F, Rizvi TA. Electrical characterization of normal and cancer cells. IEEE Access. 2018;6:25979-25986. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2830883 15. Rominiyi O, Vanderlinden A, Clenton SJ, Bridgewater C, Al-Tamimi Y, Collis SJ. Tumour treating fields therapy for glioblastoma: current advances and future directions. Br J Cancer. 2021;124(4):697-709. doi:10.1038/s41416-020-01136-5